A Grammar of Classical Japanese by Akira Komai

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1) a. b. c. d. Merge a and b, forming {a, b} Keep building the tree, adding elements like g, d, c Copy b (Re-)merge b to c In set-theoretic format: {b, {c, {d, {g, {a, b}}}}}. Outline of a General Theory of Locality 29 In tree format: y d g merge a b copy b Chomsky (2003: 307; 2004) further simpliWed the Move-as-Merge view by eliminating the copying step (1c) and allowing the very same element to be merged multiple times, giving rise to representations like (2). ) (2) y d g a b Chomsky (2004: 110) called the Wrst instance of Merge of a particular element External Merge, and the second instance of Merge of that element Internal Merge, emphasizing that both are instances of Merge, solely distinguishable when looked at from their source.

SIs have so far received a less satisfactory treatment. Most approaches adopt and seek to reWne Huang’s (1982) generalization (see also Cattell 1976) that any extraction out of nongoverned domains is barred (this is Huang’s Condition on Extraction Domain [CED]). , non-complements. Distinguishing non-complements from complements while at the same time unifying subjects (/speciWers) and adjuncts has proven extremely diYcult, especially in the context of the minimalist program, where the putatively unifying notion of government is not a primitive.

Preliminary considerations 17 (Here I follow Rizzi (1997) and take FocusP to host [+wh] material. Nothing crucial hinges on this choice. ) (12) [VP [ForceP [ TopicP [FocusP [FinitenessP]]]]] I know of no straightforward solution to this problem, which is not to say that detailed cartographic representations should be abandoned in favor of a return to less elaborate syntactic objects. My intention here was to convince the reader that the issue of locality of selection is less trivial than it might seem at Wrst, and that the nature of extended projections and cartographies will have to be examined closely if one is to maintain that locality of selection reduced to primitive relations like sisterhood and immediate containment.

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