By David Nutt & Liam J. Nestor & Liam Nestor
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Extra info for Addiction
Lancet, 377, 2093–102. ) (1998). Drinking patterns and their consequences. Taylor & Francis, Washington DC. Nutt DJ, King LA and Phillips LD (2010). Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis. Lancet, 376, 1558–65. Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y and Patra J (2009). Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet, 373, 2223–33. ) (2007). Drinking in context: patterns, interventions, and partnerships.
Cocaine, D1R/D2R receptor agonists) more into the shell of the NAcc than the core. Opioid, endocannabinoid, and GABA-benzodiazepine neurotransmitter systems also appear to be important for generating many pleasurable, ‘liking’ reactions to rewards. 56 All substances of addiction work by triggering transient, exaggerated increases in VS dopamine. g. g. food, water). e. the strengthening of connections between neurons) in this VS reward pathway. This suggests that the hard-wired circuitry essential for the processing of natural rewards can be unfavourably commandeered by substances of abuse.
E. cues) associated with the substance. These stimuli are robustly conditioned as abnormal memory traces connected to the pleasure and ‘liking’ of substance use. This conditioning involves a transition from ‘liking’ to ‘wanting’ the substance as addiction evolves. 2 Brain circuitry of addiction. Model of addiction as a result of chronic substance use within independent and overlapping circuits of the brain. Compared with the non-addicted circuitry (left), the salience value of a drug (red) and its associated cues (orange) becomes exaggerated in the addicted circuitry (right).