By Claude Hagége
This pioneering examine relies on an research of over 2 hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a virtually common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, resembling jap, have postpositions; others have either; and but others types that aren't rather both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: frequently one point governs a noun or noun-like notice or word whereas the opposite capabilities as a predicate. From the syntactic standpoint, the supplement of an adposition relies on a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head will depend on relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of such a lot languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological positive aspects, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive homes. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that categorical the family of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark area, time, accompaniment, or tool. Adpositions frequently govern case and are often progressively grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the total set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws mild on techniques of morphological and syntactic switch in several languages and language households. His e-book should be welcomed by means of typologists and by means of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra resources for Adpositions
First, on a theoretical and typological level, it shows that certain languages do not distinguish, in their morphology (in this case, tonal morphology), between the two main word-classes, verbs and nouns, and treat them in the same way, which suggests that the classical divisions of word-types is to a large extent artificial. Second, for the purpose of the present study, the Yaka tonal strategy shows that any method, whatever its rarity, may be used by a language to mark syntactic relationships.
Much more rarely, they are circumfixes, that is affixes made of two elements, one of which is located before the governed term and the other one after it. Unlike adpositional clitics, case affixes do not attach phonologically to some stressed word, whether the first or the last one in the noun-phrase. Case prefixes are less common than case suffixes. They are, however, attested in quite a few languages. ) (Aramaic, Iraq); • one Kordofanian: Krongo (Kadugli, Sudan); 22 Ad positions » ten Niger-Congo—one Cross-River: Kana (Nigeria), and ten Bantoid: Hunde (Democratic Republic of Congo), Lucazi (Angola), Luvale (Angola), Ndebele (South-Africa), Ndonga (Namibia, Angola), Noni (Cameroon), Talinga (Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo), Tonga (Zambia), Xhosa (South Africa, Zimbabwe), and Zulu (South Africa); • one Nilo-Saharan: Ateso (Nilotic); • two Oto-Manguean: Ocuilteco (Otomian, Mexico) and Mitla Zapotec (Zapotecan, Mexico); • one Tequistlatecan: Chontal de Oaxaca (Mexico); • one Totonacan: Tepehua (Mexico); • three Salishan—one Central Salish: Squamish (Canada), and two Interior Salish: Kalispel (United States), and Shuswap (Canada); • one Penutian: Takelma (United States); • five Austronesian—two Western Malayo-Polynesian, both Sundic: Enggano (Indonesia), and Nias Selatan (Indonesia), and three Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, all of them Oceanic: Gagapaiwa (Papua New Guinea), Mwotlap (Vanuatu), and Sakao (Vanuatu); • two Mon-Khmer—one Bahnaric: Cua (Vietnam), and one Aslian: Temiar (Malaysia); • two Burarran: Burarra and Gurr-goni (Australia); • one Maran: Mara (Australia); • one West Papuan: Maybrat (North-Central Bird's Head, Indonesia).
Hagège 1976: 200-1), the structure illustrated in (39a) is quite natural, and does not involve any production or comprehension difficulty. Such a structure is apparently ruled out for case affixes: I know of no language in which several case affixes can be grouped and juxtaposed together far from their governed terms and at the end of a sentence like genitive-marking Pos in Moru and Mangbetu. Furthermore, case affixes cannot be coordinated; only the group they constitute with the term they govern can be, whereas Adps may be coordinated (cf.